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International Journal of Rural Studies (IJRS)

Aims and Scope

IJRS, founded in 1994, is a journal of the International Task Force for the Rural Poor (INTAF),, Volunteers for Rural India (VRI) and the Gramodaya College and Research Institute. The aims of the journal are to highlight and encourage socially relevant and useful research in various fields of rural studies. The main aim is to identify the potential of the rural population and find ways and means to realise their potential. Education and development should be based on the cultural heritage, expertise, experience and strengths of ordinary people. Education and development should enable ordinary people to perceive and identify inhuman, coercive and oppressive realities and change them.

Publication and Subscription

IJRS is published twice yearly in April and October. The annual subscription rate for a hardcopy of the journal within India is Rs 50. This amount may be sent by a bank draft or a Money Order, made payable to: IJRS, c/o Gramodaya College and Research Institute, Amarpurkashi, PO Bilari - 202411, District Moradabad, UP.

For subscribers outside India, there is a higher annual subscription rate of £20 including postage. UK subscriptions should be sent to the UK office by cheque payable to INTAF.

The journal's ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is ISSN 1023-2001.

IJRS is available free online, and is subsidised by VRI, a registered UK charity. If you use the online articles, please consider making a small donation to VRI.

Downloading articles free of charge

All articles since October 2005 are now available online. Just click on the title of the article you want, to view the pdf file.

To read the pdf files, you will need Adobe Reader. If you do not already have it, click on this icon to download a free copy: Open a new window to download Adobe Reader

If the article is not available online, back issues of the magazine can be purchased from the editors' addresses given below.

Patron

Prof. The Lord Desai of St. Clement Danes

Editors

  • Chief Editor - Mukat Singh, Hon. Principal, Gramodaya Degree College & Research Institute
  • Jyoti Singh (General Secretary of VRI and INTAF)
  • Peter Kempadoo, Zimbabwe
  • Sedley Sweeny, Canada
  • Prof. Zhu Shoumin, China
  • Dr Devendra Singh, Meerut, India

Contact the IJRS office

  • In India: IJRS, c/o Gramodaya College and Research Institute, Amarpurkashi, PO Bilari - 202411, District Moradabad, UP. apk_gram@yahoo.co.uk
  • In the UK: IJRS, c/o Jyoti Singh (VRI and INTAF), 12 Eastleigh Avenue, South Harrow HA2 0UF enquiries@ivcs.org.uk


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April 2014

Article (click on title to download):
1. Editorial – A Tribute to Sedley Sweeney Mukat Singh
2. Impact of Micro Finance in Bangla Desh Mohd Arshad Khan
3. Teacher Education for Rural Teachers Chandan Shrivastava
4. Informal Credit Markets and Rural Enterprises A. Essien and Chukwuemeka J. Arene
5. Awareness Among Adolescent Girls Tara Negi
6. Rural Community Development in Nigeria Muhammad Bello Ibrahim
7. A Strategy for Rural Development Dr. Roopesh Kumar Mishra, Dr. Ashok Kumar Singh, Ayush Tiwari


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October 2013

Article (click on title to download):
1. Editorial – Report of the workshop on Pro-poor Sustainable Development Mukat Singh
2. Policy Environment and the World of the Rural Poor Sunit Singh
3. Prospectives of Agribusiness for the Future of sub-Saharan Africa M. Mkpado
4. How the poor stay poor M and J Singh
5. Political Participation of Women in Gram Panchayat Elections in Odisha India A. Gochhayat
6. Socio-Economic Empowerment of Rural Women through Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) M. Arivanandan
7. Constraints faced by Poultry Farm Entrepreneurs in Gujarat A.S. Sheikh, B.K.Aswar, Charan Rohit
8. Where is Society heading? Chitra Singh


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April 2013

Article (click on title to download):
1. Editorial - A University for Sustainable Development
2. Traditional Bee-keeping in Uttarakhand P Tiwari, J K Tiwari, Dinesh Singh, Dhanbir Singh
3. Farmers' Groups in Nigeria Albert Ukaro Ofuoku
4. A Sustainable Panchayat Paradigm Dr.S.Palanivelraja, Dr.K.I.Manirathinem
5. Rural Livelihoods in Oil-producing countries Albert, C. O.
6. Gram Sabhas in Goa Dr. Seema P. Salgaonkar
7. Integrated Farming Systems Sujit K Nath, K C Barik
8. Community Radio for Rural Women Arpita Sharma
9. Solar Equipment and Smokeless Chulhas Indira Bishnoi


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October 2012

Article (click on title to download):
1. Editorial
2. Water Management in Sindh, Pakistan Habibullah Magsi and Salman Atif
3. MGNREGA in Tribal Rajasthan L.M.Nayak, P.K.Barla and Bijayalaxmi Panda
4. Mobile phone owners among fisher folk of Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria P.I. Ifejika
5. Village Information Centres as development agents in India Dr M. Arivanandan
6. Soil Fertility Depletion in the Tarai, Uttarakhand Sucheta Singh and Chandeshwar Tiwari
7. Farmers’ Field Schools in Karnataka S.C.Bharamappanavara, S.M.Mundinanami, B.K.Nayak and V.R.Kiresur
8. Constraints to the Adoption of Electricity In Rural Areas Farida Ahmed and Indira Bishnoi


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April 2012

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial
2. Development Projects and Land Use Conflicts in Pakistan Habibullah Magsi This article describes the impact of the Chotiari water reservoir on socio-economic values and livelihoods in Pakistan and the policy implications of the project
3. Fresh Milk Price Structure Policy in East Java Bambang Ali Nugroho This paper’s objective is to examine the relevance of a rules-based fresh milk price structure policy in East Java with a view to improving the development of small-scale dairy farming.
4. Corruption and its impact on development in Nagaland, India Dr. T. Zarenthung Ezung Corruption, which is defined as the abuse of public power for personal ends, has become a way of life for the Naga society. This paper attempts to highlight the causes, types and trends of corruption and its impact on development in the state.
5. National conference on corruption Mukat Singh
6. Agricultural and Socio Economic Impact of Green River Project in Nigeria F E Nlerum, B I Isife and C O Albert This study determined the agricultural and social impact of the Green River Project (GRP) in Imo State, Nigeria.
7. Development of Rural Women Micro-Entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean Dr S C Jhansi and Dr S K Mishra This paper aims to give an insight into the growing strengths of rural women micro-entrepreneurs in Latin America and Caribbean countries.
8. Primary Education in Dangs Tribal district, Gujarat, India Gaurang Rami


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October 2011

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial - Eighth INTAF World Conference
2. Poverty Reduction: A Continuous Social Responsibility in Malaysia Henry Ngun Ceu Thang, Post-Doctoral Fellow; Dr. Amir Husin Baharuddin, Professor of Economics Universiti Sains Malaysia This paper highlights that poverty reduction is not entirely the responsibility of the government of the day, but more importantly it is the social responsibility of all citizens. The government and private sectors with the support of every individual must go hand in hand to fight against poverty so that all citizens enjoy the benefit of economic growth in Malaysia.
3. Contribution of Variables to the Role Performance of Char Women in Maintaining Sustainable Livelihoods in Bangladesh Sultana Al-Amin, Gono Kollayan Trust, Shamolli, Dhaka; Md Mostarfipur Rahman, Dept. of Agronomy & Ag. Ext’n and A.B.M. Sharif Uddin, IBS, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh; Md. Abdul Momen Miah, Dept. of Ag. Ext’n Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University
4. Challenges faced by the Agriculture Sector in Developing Countries with special reference to India Nidhi Dwivedy
5. The Indian Educational System Irmel V. Marla (Sociologist/Anthropologist), Chair, International Institute for Holistic Research and Voluntary Action (India/Germany) Vice-Chair, Rural Business Hub Foundation India On the problems of the unemployability of Indian youth because of essential deficiencies in the system of higher education
6. Understanding the situation of rural settlements in the mountainous region of Malaysia Ayoob Khaleel Ismael, Dr. Ibrahim Ngah, Faculty of Built Environment, Urban & Regional Planning, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310Skudai-Johor-Malaysia
7. Association of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Rural Women with their Knowledge of Household Kitchen Appliances Farida Ahmed, Lecturer, Dept. Home Science, Mahadev Mahavidyalay, Bariyasanpur, Varanasi, India; Indira Bishnoi, Professor, Dept. Home Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India


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April 2011

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial - a wall of indifference Indifference to industrial pollution in rural India
2. Training Needs of Agricultural Extension Agents in the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State Nigeria B.O.Ovwigho, Delta state University, Nigeria The specific objectives of the study were to identify the training needs of agricultural extension agents, validate them and develop a theory of identification of training needs for agricultural extension agents.
3. Socio-Economic Development of Rural Area of Konkan Region of Maharashtra State through Agrotourism Paresh V. Joshi, Milind Bhujbal and Satyawan Pable, Assistant/Associate Professors of Agricultural Economics, College of ABM, Narayangaon, Pune, India To preserve the natural heritage of Konkan region and to develop the socio-economic status, strategic scientific planning of agro tourism as a form of rural tourism is a need of hour. Therefore the focus should be on infrastructure development schemes coupled with anti-poverty fund schemes for increasing income and employment opportunities.
4. Tribal Land and People of Himachal Pradesh: A Developmental Perspective H.S.Parmar, Professor of Economics, ICDEOL, H.P.University, Shimla, India
5. Livelihood Options for the Landless in an Agrarian Society - A case study from far western Nepal Purna Nepali, PhD Researcher; Kailash Nath Pyakuryal, Professor; Sagar Raj Sharma, Head of Dept.; HNRSC, Kathmandu University, Ulrike Mueller Boeker, Prof. Human Geography, Zurich University The livelihood options of landless households of far western Nepal are wage labor, farming and seasonal migration to India. Food sufficiency is barely enough for 0-3 months a year for most. This article describes their coping strategies.
6. Turning Garbage Into Gold - Sharing experience from Gujarat, India Varsha Parikh, Lecturer, Mousami Phukon, ex PG student, Faculty of Family and Community Sciences, M S University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat, India Describes a vermicomposting project in rural Gujarat.
7. Employment Generation by Bamboo Resource Development and its impact on rural Communities Dr. Chikkaranga Swamy, Post Doctoral Fellow and Faculty, Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore, India


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October 2010

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial Practical grass-roots research.
2. How can corporate houses contribute to capacity building in rural areas? A Note in the Indian Context with Special Reference to North-East India Dr Debasis Neogi, Agartala, India The paper discusses how the unexplored potential of the North Eastern Region can be effectively exploited by business houses through proper capacity building and optimum utilization of local resources.
3. Women’s position in on-farm tree planting activities: a case of Kachumbala sub-county Kumi district, Eastern Uganda Jacob Godfrey Agea, Emmanuel Okalang, Bernard Obaa, Clement Okia Akais & John Bosco Lamoris Okullo This study explored women’s position in on-farm tree planting activities in Kachumbala sub-county of Kumi District, eastern Uganda. It assessed the nature of women’s participation in tree planting activities, the nature of the farm plots they manage, determined main sources of farm labour and planting stocks used by these women and documented the challenges faced by these farmers.
4. Pollute and Prosper Jyoti Singh The growth of industries in this rural area has brought jobs but the cost has been uncontrolled pollution.
5. Determination of Purchasing Power of Small Scale Women Entrepreneurs in Agribusiness in Delta State, Nigeria: implications for welfare economics Achoja, F.O. & Eyaefe, J.A., Delta State University, Nigeria This study examined the purchasing power of small-scale women entrepreneurs in Delta State, Nigeria.
6. Climate Change and Rural Development: the challenge for agricultural dynamnics T.Sadashivam, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi Discusses impact of, and response to, climate change in rural India.
7. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) - a range of possibilities Moitri Dey, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi Based on secondary sources of data, this paper intends to assess NREGA for alleviating rural poverty. It will attempt to address issues like whether NREGA has lived up to its full potential, what the challenges are in the implementation of the Act and how it can address those challenges.
8. A Tribute to John Linton J.E. Singh


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April 2010

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial - education in India Over the last forty years, many changes in Indian education have been proposed. The editor looks at the failure of these changes and proposes some possible solutions.
2. Human trafficking in Nigeria and its implications for food security A.U. Ofuoku, Delta State University, Nigeria Nigeria has acquired an unsavoury reputation as a leading African country in both cross- border and internal trafficking of humans, most of them women. This paper looks at the consequences for food production and recommends ways to control this social evil.
3. A voice for the voiceless: The role of community radio in the development of the rural poor Dr.Dhanraj A Patil, Walchand Institute of Arts and Science, Solapur, Maharashtra, India Getting information to people in remote rural areas has always been a problem and the proliferation of new media technology has not yet benefited rural folk in any significant way. This paper looks at the positive role community radio has played in rural areas of India and recommends a revival and extension of its role.
4. Cattle rearing patterns of farmers in northern karnataka Shivakumar K. Radder, S.K. Bhanj and P.N. Kaul, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Karnataka, India Livestock play a very important role in Indian farming. This study looks at livestock farming in a dry land area of Karnataka in the south of India where mixed farming is the preferred practice. It recommends that development programmes should work with, rather than against, farmers’ traditional ways.
5. Agricultural insurance in India Debdatta Pal and Tamojit Mondal, Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Vastrapur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Devising an appropriate insurance scheme for such a weather-dependent way of life as farming is not easy. The authors of this paper look at existing schemes and recommend a peril-indexed one as more suited to farmers’ needs.
6. Analysis of the activities of Community Development Associations in rural transformation in Emohua Town, Nigeria Iheanyi N. Okwakpam, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria. People’s participation in development is an essential goal in a developing country’s progress but not an easy one to achieve. Community associations have proved an effective way to encourage local people to be their own agents for change. This study recommends that federal, state and local government should award matching and administrative grants to such associations to help establish working relationships between community and government.
7. Farmers' technological knowledge of Bt Cotton in Rajsamand, Rajasthan, India Laad Kumari Sharma, F.L. Sharma and B. Upadhyay, Dept. of Agri. Stats and Computer Application, RCA, Udaipur, India Bt cotton is cotton which has been genetically modified to contain its own biological insecticide, thus reducing the need for chemical insectisides. Improved techniques can make a significant difference to production output and profits but many farmers are not aware of recent advances. What knowledge there is tends to be among the larger farmers while medium and small farmers know far less. This is clearly a drawback that the Indian government needs to address.
8. Economic and technological constraints facing farm women in Uttar Pradesh, India Nivedita Tiwari, Research Scholar, College of Home Science (Extension & Communication Management), C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India In many developing countries, women play a large part in farming but there is very little attempt to recognise their valuable contributions or to help them overcome the many constraints that, as women, they usually have. This study found that in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, more than half of farmers were women but they took little part in extension and training programmes. One of the recommendations made is that adequate loans should be offered to women farmers at lower interest rates.
9. An appeal to IJRS readers from the Editor The ever-increasing costs of printing and postage are making it difficult to continue publication of IJRS. Readers are asked to make a small contribution or take out an annual subscription.


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October 2009

Article (click on title to download): Introduction:
1. Editorial - village primary schools in India Recent research has highlighted inadequacies in the existing government-funded primary schools in rural India; the editor proposes a new approach based on "teacher entrepreneurs"
2. Effects of the operations of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on cash crops in Nigeria R.A. Isiorhovoja and C.O. Chukwuji, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Asaba, Nigeria The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) was established in Nigeria in 1977 to make credit available to smallholder farmers. This paper asked these questions: has the Scheme made any significant impact on farmers’ accessibility to farm credit? Do ACGSF guaranteed loans have any significant impact on cash crop output? To answer these questions, the paper presents an analysis of national statistics from 1981 to 2005.
3. Knowledge level of paddy growers regarding improved practices of paddy cultivation in Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India Asst. Prof. Rizwana, SKUST-K, Shalimar, Kashmir and Thelma R Paris, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines The Institutional Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) provides practical agricultural training in rural India. This study was conducted in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh state to look at levels of knowledge of rice paddy cultivation, comparing knowledge levels of female and male farmers, and comparing villages covered by IVLP with villages outside the programme. The study found significantly higher knowledge levels in villages within the programme; however, in all villages they found that female farmers had lower levels of knoweldge, as a result of lower exposure to training and to other sources of information. Another interesting discovery was that farmers in IVLP villages had a greater enthusiasm for acquiring further knowledge, and the female farmers in these villages were more confident about discussing agricultural issues.
4. Enhancing learning and innovation among local communities through networks in poor areas: the case study of GMCL, India Maria-Costanza Torri, Research Chair in Ethno-ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, Université de Montréal, Canada The herbal medicine company Gram Mooligai (GMCL) works with NGOs who have set up a network of village-level groups for the collection of wild herbs, providing valuable income to villagers. The writer of this article argues that such a network of communities and business could provide an alternative model for development.
5. Socio-economic empowerment of tribal women: an Indian perspective Mohammad Awais, Tosib Alam and Mohammad Asif, A.M.U. Aligarh The "Tribals" of India live in the forests, hills and inaccessible areas. They pursue their own way of life, largely untouched by the society around them. This article describes the roles and status of tribal women, which differ in many ways from those of women in India as a whole. It also describes various government assistance schemes and how they have benefited or could benefit tribal people.
6. Community Farm Extension Model for Agricultural Development in Nigeria - Bishop O.Ovwigho, Delta State University, Nigeria This paper examines the historical development of agriculture in Nigeria, and evaluates the potential of the "Community Farm Extension Model" to stimulate agricultural development. The Community Farm Extension Model involves establishing model/experimental farms (on land provided by the local community) which local farmers are encouraged to visit, thus giving them exposure to the latest farming technologies.
7. Book review: Dynamics of Agricultural Development in Post Green Revolution Period by Dr. Ugra Mohan Jha and Dr. Naresh Jha - review by Prof. T.P. Verma, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India book review

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April 2009

Article (click on title to download):Introduction:
1. Editorial - We who live in the villages The editor discusses the relative merits of a public/private partnership and a fully democratic approach
2. Report of INTAF seventh world assembly Report of annual assembly of INTAF, the International Task Force for the Rural Poor
3. Employment assurance scheme: an impact assessment - Dr. Lalnilawma, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was launched by the Indian government in 1993 to provide some assured employment for the rural poor. This article reports on an impact assessment.
4. Rural farmers' involvement in identification and priortisation of infrastructure needs in Oju Local Government Area of Benue state, Nigeria - V.U. Oboh and C.K. Biam, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria and R.M. Sani, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU) Bauchi, Nigeria This study analyzed rural farmers’ involvement in the identification and prioritization of infrastructure needs in Oju Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 70 rural farmers who were randomly selected.
5. From poverty to prosperity - a case of social entrepreneurship in an Indian village - Dr. G. Prageetha Raju and Dr Ravikiran Dwivedula, IBS Hyderabad, India Another inspiring article about the pioneering work of Rangaswamy Elango in Kuthambakkam village.
6. Income and health benefits for rural households from improved cookstoves in developing countries - Homi Katrak, Visiting Professor in Economics, University of Surrey, U.K. This paper surveys the performance of improved cook stoves in nineteen developing countries and examines the likely health benefits for women and children.
7. The Role of Community Development Committees in Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria - A.U. Ofuoku, Delta State University, Nigeria This study was carried out in Delta Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria to examine the management of farmer-herder conflicts by community development committees (CDCs).
8. Factors Affecting Performance Level of Women Panchayat Members of Panchayati Raj System in Sikar District of Rajasthan - Poonam Kalash, Rajendra Rathore (College Home Science, RAU, Bikaner, Rajasthan) and Manoj Kumar (KVK, BudBud, Burdwan, West Bengal) This study investigates the socio-personal characteristics of women elected to the Indian local government roles of "Panch" and Sarpanch".
9. Research into the state of government primary education in 10 rural schools of Moradabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India - Mukat Singh, Gramodaya PG College, Amarpurkashi This study of ten local village government-run primary schools revealed high levels of absenteeism and low levels of pupil-teacher interaction.
10. Nirmal Gram Puraskar: A Unique Experiment in Incentivising Sanitation Coverage in Rural India - Benny George Clean drinking water and proper sanitation facilities are indispensable for a healthy life. Sanitation coverage in rural India has been growing at an impressive rate since 2001, thanks mainly to efforts made under the Total Sanitation Campaign. To add vigour to the Campaign, an incentive scheme, "Nirmal Gram Puraskar", was launched by the Government of India in 2003. This article attempts to ascertain the performance of the scheme. Though it has succeeded in triggering a healthy competition in rural areas, sustainability of sanitation coverage and the process of verification of applications are areas of concern.
11. Enhancing the income of orchard farmers in Uttarakhand - A.N. Shukla, Surya Rathore*, H.N. Singh and Jagdish Kumar Dept of Agri. Economics & *Agri. Communication, G.B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar Guava is an important fruit crop in India. Its nutritive and high remunerative values make it a crop of commercial significance. Yet traditional methods of cultivation produce low yields. This article reports on research into techniques to improve financial returns.
12. Livelihood Improvement of Farm Women through Cattle and Buffalo Rearing in Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan - Poonam Kalash, PhD scholar, RAU, Bikaner, Rajasthan; Rajendra Rathore, Asst. Prof., RAU, Bikaner, Rajasthan; Manoj Kumar, Subject Matter Specialist, KVK, BudBud, Burwan, West Bengal Cattle and buffalo rearing is primarily a female activity, and provides important additional income to rural families. The present study was conducted to assess the extent of improvement of livelihood of farm women by cattle and buffalo rearing in the study area.
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October 2008

Article (click on title to download):Introduction:
1. Editorial - The voice of the poor An elderly villager tells his own story
2. Low-input agricultural technologies in sub-saharan Africa - M Mkpado, University of Nigeria Nsukka and R.E. Onuoha, Alvan Ikoku College of Education, Nigeria The need for food security in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a large pool of labour but very little capital, demands improvement in the use of low-input technologies. There is a great need for research into ways of refining existing traditional "low-tech" farming techniques, using local materials and not relying on an expensive source of power. Yet these simple technologies are often ignored by researchers and politicians alike.

This is a very practical article drawing attention to "low-tech" methods used successfully by small-scale farmers in Nigeria.

3. Gandhian philosophy of a self-reliant village - study of Kuthambakkam in Tamil Nadu - Dr R.B. Patil, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India In 1994, Elango Rangaswami gave up his chemical engineering job and turned his attentions to the village of his birth. In a few years, he turned it from a notorious centre of boot-leg liquor, wife-beating and disease, to a thriving community selling needed goods and services to the surrounding villages. This inspiring article describes his vision, his projects, and how he adapted Gandhian ideas to produce his own model for village development.
4. The most affected in land issues - women, migrants, urban dwellers, youth and people with HIV/Aids - O. Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong Kwapong, Ghana This study looks at the effects of land issues on the most marginalised: women, migrants, youth, the urban ppor and people with HIV/Aids. The author takes each group in turn and highlights their particular problems, and suggests ways in which land administration regulations could be changed to meet their needs.
5. Rice biodiversity and its social implication - Abha Singh NDUAT Faizabad UP, H. N. Singh and Jagdish Singh GBPUAT Pantnagar UP, India Modern high-yielding varieties of rice are replacing robust traditional varieties adapted to the local environment. There is a danger than useful traits such as drought-resistance and pathogen resistance could be lost.
6. Information processing behaviour of groundnut growers in Rajasthan - Manoj Kumar, F L Sharma, M K Kaushik, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India Rajasthan is one of the major groundnut producing states of India. However, productivity is low, mainly because farmers have not adopted a package of improved practices. This study was undertaken to find out how farmers evaulate information about groundnut cultivation technology, and how they retain such information.
7. Case study of land ownership in rural Bangladesh - M. Aminul Islam Akanda, American International University, Bangladesh and Shoichi Ito, Kyushu University Japan This research studied the changing pattern of land ownership in Bangladesh in a time of increasing land shortage. As a case study, the researchers analysed the changes in land ownership of a specific clan over the last hundred years.
8. Rural Biotechnology: Alternative and ultimate approaches for rural development in India - P. Chellapandi, Bharathidasan University, Tamil Nadu, India The author examines the extent to which Biotechnology is already affecting the farming practices of the rural poor, and discusses the encouragement and infrastructure needed to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and practical application to benefit the rural poor
9. Rural women's empowerment is the best strategy for poverty eradication in rural areas - K B Nidheesh, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India This article describes the Kudumbashree scheme, whose aim is to improve the standard of living of poor women in rural areas by setting up micro-credit and productive enterprises.
10. NGO Profile - Welfare India - Welfare India Profile of a small Indian NGO, "Welfare India"

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April 2008

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. Editorial - Jyoti and Mukat Singh Everyone in India is taught about Mahatma Gandhi, but to what extent are key figures pursuing the fight against Gandhi's "seven social sins"?
2. Gender participation and role of women in livestock management practices in Bundelkhand region of central India - Seema Mishra, Satyawati Sharma, Padma Vasudevan, R K Bhatt, Sadhna Pandey, Maharaj Singh, B S Meena, S N Pandey This report of a survey of 260 farmers describes the gender breakdown of various farm tasks, and how this depends on the education and economic status of the women concerned.
3. Adoption of Vermiculture technology by tribal farmers in Udaipur district of Rajasthan - Karan Singh, B S Bhimawat, N K Punjabi Using earthworms to produce good-quality compost is a recently-discovered technique which is simple and easily mastered and potentially very profitable. But many farmers are not yet aware of its advantages, There was also concern among agencies that farmers may have been discouraged by poor results when not applying the techniques correctly. The present study was therefore undertaken to learn the extent of adoption of different practices of the technology recommended by scientists and find the adoption gap in various practices.
4. Access of rural women to productive resources in Bangladesh: a pillar for promoting their empowerment - Shahnaj Parveen, Bangladesh Agricultural University Research was conducted in three villages to assess women's access to land, capital, training, technology, inputs such as seeds, fertilizer and pesticide, opportunities to rear livestock, and access to rural institutions such as co-operatives. The researchers discovered considerable barriers to land ownership by women, and limited access to training and new technologies. There was a greater degree of access to capital and to livestock rearing, but the control of these resources often remained in the hands of male relatives.
5. Economics of Rural Development - Ugra Johan Jha, Anga Institute of Research Planning and Action; Naresh Jha, Development Research Institue Jalsain, Bihar The authors look at different definitions of rural development, and conclude that rural development is multifaceted, with no single criterion for measuring success. The authors then look at different models for development more generally, including a free-market approach, a mixed-economy welfare state, a socialist command economy, and the Gandhian model of development emphasising moral dedvelopment.
6. Gravity Flow - Ensuring sustainability of rural water supply and livelihood - Sambit Kumar Garnayak Gram Vikas, a rural development organisation in Orissa, has found gravity flow systems to be an excellent way to provide water to villages in remote and hilly areas. The pumped systems supplied by the government elsewhere are reliant on electricity or diesel and are not feasible in these impoverished areas. The author recommends that the government works with the local community to provide gravity flow water systems in such areas.
7. Agriculture in India: Land use and sustainability - Niru Kushwaha, M J P Rohilkhand University, Bareilly The proportion of land area under agriculture in India is relatively high. The author explains why there is little scope for further expansion. The issue of intensive agriculture is thus a pressing one. The author describes the dangers of intensive agriculture, and contrasts it with modern sustainable agriculture, with its emphasis on resource conservation and working with the ecosystem. As an example, the different practices and resulting profits of two farmers are compared and contrasted.
8. Self Help through Microfinance: A paradigm shift in Orissa, India - Debadutta Kumar Panda, Development Research Trust, Bhubaneswar The author describes the successes of microfinance in rural Orissa, one of the most deprived states of India. A study of eight self help groups analyses the financial transactions of each group, the economic activities undertaken, and the benefits not only in terms of increased income but also in terms of self-confidence, awareness of social issues, and ability to work with others.
9. Impact of 73rd Amendment Act on women's leadership in the Punjab - D P Singh, Punjabi University, Patiala The 73rd Amendment of the Indian Constitution, which came into force in 1992, reserves a third of seats in local government councils ("Panchayati Raj institutions") for women. Sixteen years on, this article describes the positive effect this has had on women's participation in all levels of government. However, the system is still imperfect, and it is still fairly common for the elected woman's husband to take her place on the council. A survey of women in local government in three villages looks at the characteristics of the women who are elected, and the extent to which they personally participate in council meetings.

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October 2007

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. Editorial - Jyoti Singh The Millennium Development Goals Report 2007 has been published, showing the progress made during the last 5 years against the Millennium Development Goals. Considerable progress has been made in many areas, but areas of concern include increased income inequality, high maternal mortality, and levels of aid from richer countries.
2. Government's role in Saudi Arabian village development: the case of Al-Yazeed - Hussein Al-Rimmawi of Birzeit University, Palestine and Surinder Bhardwaj of Kent State University, USA This is a study of the impact of governmental policies on space and cultural landscape changes in the village of Al-Yazeed in southwestern Saudi Arabia. It describes the effect of increased national wealth and government provision upon traditional village society.
3. Optimising food crop diversification to enhance the rural income generated from the agricultural sector - Joko Mariyono, Australian National University An important issue for farmers is whether to put all their resources into producing one crop, or whether to share their resources between two crops. Which will maximise their revenue? If it is more lucrative to grow two crops, what is the optimum ratio between the crops? The author describes a mathematical model for this problem, using production figures from five regions of Java. He uses the model to make recommendations about which crops should be combined.
4. Performance of women's self help groups (SHGs) in district Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh - Y K Singh, S K Kaushai and S S Gautam of Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Report of a study investigating the ways in which socio-personal characteristics (such as family size, caste, income) affect both the group dynamics and the achievements of self help groups. A striking finding is that the slightly better-off, more educated families are able to get more benefit from the SHGs than do the most deprived.
5. ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) and adult education for empowerment of rural women in Africa - Olivia Adwoa Twaah Frimpong Kwapong, Univeristy of Ghana Kwapong describes how various media, from posters and radio to computers and the internet, can be used to provide relevant information and education to rural women. Radio has already proved to be a very effective tool; there is also potential for the use of more complex technology, though this poses more challenges.
6. Effects of democratization of group administration on the sustaniability of agricultural micro credit groups in Nigeria - M. Mkpado and C.J. Arene, University of Nigeria The authors studied 54 agricultural micro credit groups to assess the importance of regular and well-attended group meetings, considering the effect on both savings mobilisation and loan repayment.

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April 2007

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. Editorial - Jyoti Singh India's new Right to Information Act gives citizens access to official records. The aim is to make government institutions more accountable. The Editor welcomes the Act, but finds that the way it has been implemented is hampering its effectiveness.
2. Women in Agriculture - Impact on the home environment - Drs J K Ghill, M K Dhillon and M K Sidhu Drs Ghill, Dhillon and Sidhu interviewed women engaged in agricultural work in order to evaluate the impact, both positive and negative, on their home environment.

They found marked differences between women from families holding some land, and women from (largely poorer) landless families. The women with land found that their work improved the family standard of living and also improved their own status within the family. For the landless women, work was a matter of grim necessity, damaging their health and affecting family discipline.

3. Has agriculture reached a tipping point? - An extract from an article by Claire Hope Cummings Cummings describes the environmental degradation caused by "industrialised" agriculture, and welcomes the recent successes of sustainable agriculture.
4. Economics of Production and Marketing of Safed Musli in Rural Areas of Vindhyan Plateau, Madhya Pradesh, India - Vikas Parmar, Dr Vijay Kumar, Dr Manoj K Singh, Indian Institute of Forest Management The forest herb Safed Musli is a popular ingredient of traditional Indian medicine. It has the potential to bring significant profits to farmers and middle-men. Parmar, Kumar and Singh investigate current methods of cultivation, and argue that a more scientific method to cultivation and marketing could benefit all parties involved.
5. Power of Information in the Indian rural set up - an analysis - Debadutta Kumar Panda and Jasmine Mohanty, MP Associates How does information reach the inhabitants of rural India? What information sources are trusted? How are farming and fishing communities hampered by inadequate access to timely information?
6. Liberalization and Interactions with the Market: A survey of some experiences of rural producers in developing countries - extracts from a paper by Meenakshi Raman This paper presents the results of a survey of some experiences of small rural producers in developing countries. From poultry in Senegal to cashew nuts in Mozambiqe, local farmers are unable to compete with subsidised imports from the US and Europe.
7. Awareness of DWCRA Programme among Rural Women in India - Indira Bishnoi and Vibha Singh, Varanasi Development of Women and Children in Rural Area (DWCRA) is a government programme aiming to lift women above the poverty line. For it to work effectively, it was necessary that its beneficiaries understood its aims and objectives. Bishnoi and Singh interviewed beneficiaries in the Varanasi district to find out what sort of income-generating activities the women had been trained in as part of the scheme, and the level of awareness of DWCRA among various social groups.
8. Socio-economic Status of Tribal Farmers - A case study of the Bhaxa tribe in Bijnor District, U.P. - Mohammad Awais and Dr Ramesh Singh, RSM College Dhampur, Bijnor The Bhaxas are one of the many tribal groups in India. Though nearby non-tribal farmers have become prosperous in recent years, the Bhaxas have remained poor. The writers describe the Bhaxa farmer's way of life as "a continual struggle for existence", and suggest remedies for the future.
9. Project Profile - Society for Agro-Industrial Education in India A project profile of this NGO operating in rural India

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October 2006

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. Editorial - Jyoti Singh Jyoti Singh considers the costs of ever-increasing industrialisation and consumption.
2. Trade on Human Terms An abstract of the UNDP Asia-Pacific Human Development Report 2006
3. Fishermens Perception and the Estuarine Set Bag Net Fishery in Bangladesh - Md. Rashed-Un-Nabia, Md. Azharul Hoquea, Ridzwan Abdul Rahmana, Saleem Mustafaa, Md. Abdul Kaderb Fishery management is relatively new in Bangladesh, and depletion of fish stock is a serious issue. Fishermen and fishing communities have valuable knowledge about fish populations and local ecology. Representatives from the Borneo Marine Research Institute and the Institute of Marine Sciences, Chittagong, have interviewed Bangladeshi fishermen as part of a study about fishermen's own perceptions of fishing and fishery management.
4. Poverty - A vague and value oriented concept - Dr Rama Kant Thakur and Dr Naumi Priya Drs Thakur and Priya look at various different definitions and concepts of poverty.
5. Constraints in Jatropha Cultivation Perceived by Farmers in Udaipur District, Rajasthan - H.R. Meena and F.L. Sharma, Department of Extension Education, RCA, MPUAT, Udaipur The Jatropha plant can be used to produce soaps and bio-fuel, and its cultivation can prevent soil deterioration. Yet at present it is merely grown as fencing or a wild plant. With this in mind, a study was undertaken to identify the various constraints perceived by farmers in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, in the adoption of recommended Jatropha cultivation practices.

The researchers identified a number of factors, including lack of technical guidance and lack of availability of improved strains.
6. Project profile: Maiti Nepal Maiti Nepal is a children and women's rights organisation which seeks to protect children and women from human trafficking by educating them about the dangers, supporting those at risk, rehabilitating the survivors of trafficking, and bringing traffickers to justice.
7. SOPHIA - Society for the Promotion of Himalayan Indigenous Activities - Mira Fels, University of Hamburg, Germany Abstract from a research report by Mira Fels. In the autumn of 2004, Mira Fels visited India as part of her studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. She spent ten days with SOPHIA (Society for the Promotion of Himalayan Indigenous Activities), an organisation which works with the Van Gujjar, who live a nomadic life in the Shivalik forests at the foothills of the Himalayas.

She interviewed project workers and local people to discover their most pressing problems, and how these are being or should be addressed, and people’s hopes for the future.

Her report also provides a fascinating insight into the way of life of this tribal group.
8. Poverty - Some facts and figures - Centre for Policy Alternatives What proportion of Indian households have access to a safe water supply? How many calories a day does an active person require? This short summary of the February 2006 report by the Centre for Policy Alternatives gives some basic facts and figures about poverty and need in modern India.

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April 2006

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. Editorial - Corruption - Mukat Singh Corruption not only hinders development and investment in third world countries but has become so firmly entrenched that even the highly educated lack the will or power to protest. This editorial suggests a way out.
2. UNESCO GLOBAL EDUCATION DIGEST 2004 - UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Montreal This article looks at educational statistics across a wide range of both developed and developing countries and reveals the dismal state of educational opportunities in some countries of the world - for example, Zambia, Zimbabwe and the Congo where school life expectancy has actually fallen in the last ten years.
3. Evaluation of Improved Kalanamak Rice Technology - Professors HN Singh, US Singh, SP Singh, RK Singh The obsession with high yields and in particular with long-grained Basmati rice has resulted in the rapid disappearance of indigenous varieties, including the many small and medium grained scented varieties. This article presents the findings of a special programme aimed at improving the yield and quality of Kalanamak, an ancient and much prized variety now fallen into disuse.
4. Socio-Personal Characteristics of Women from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes - Indira Bishnoi and Shivani Srivastava Bishnoi and Srivastava conducted this study among rural women from six villages in eastern U.P. in order to provide a foundation for future development plans and programmes. The results paint a familiar picture of gender discrimination, social backwardness and poor infrastructure.
5. Agricultural and Food Losses in Nigeria - the Way Out - B A Oyewole and S A Oloko While Nigeria has been making determined efforts to improve agricultural production, the substantial losses suffered post-harvest mean that little real progress has been made. Poor transport and roads, inadequate storage and handling, minimal production incentives, bacterial contamination in crops and inconsistent government policies are among the concerns that the authors express.
6. Malnutrition in Children of the Backward States of India - Sanjeev Sharma Sharma evaluates the ICDS programme that started in 1975 to tackle the problem of malnutrition in children and poor health in mothers. He examines levels of nutrition, health status, feeding practices, general healthcare, awareness and immunization and concludes that the performance of the ICDS programme has fallen far short of expectations and recommends a far more rigorous monitoring of the implementation of the scheme.
7. Suggestion for a policy to improve primary education in India - Sankarshan Acharya This is a brief but highly focused and practical look at one way of improving the current parlous state of the primary education provided by government schools.
8. Swaziland - a voluntary worker’s experience - Daniel Besley Daniel Besley works as a volunteer for a small NGO in Swaziland and here provides a fascinating glimpse into life in that small, poverty-stricken land.
9. Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and poverty in Africa - Economic Report on Africa 2005 As developing countries struggle to reach the Millennium Development Goals, statistics begin to reveal how illusive these goals are proving to be. Unequal distribution of opportunities, capital-intensive growth without comparable labour-intensive or broad- based employment creation and inadequate investment in the agricultural sector are all causing poverty in Africa to remain a chronic and ever-increasing problem.
10. Project profile: Nilachal Seva Pratisthan (NSP) - S C Gajendra This report of a remarkable project in Orissa, the poorest state in India, briefly outlines the many activities successfully undertaken by NSP.
11. Report of the INTAF-Orissa State Conference - Jyoti Singh NSP was host to a state conference of NGO workers who discussed the rural poor and in particular the effects of corruption and ineffective government plans, the lack of a good infrastructure for rural areas, the hierarchy that actively works against improving the lot of the poor and the role of financial institutions, NGO networks, local village councils and the media.
12. Free Eye Treatment Camp at Amarpurkashi - Iona Hine This excellent report describes a free eye camp for villagers held at Amarpurkashi in U.P., India. It shows what can and is being done and also points the way ahead to further improvements.
13. health journal review

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October 2005

Article (click on title to download):Abstract:
1. INTAF Conference Report and Recommendations Report, declaration and recommendations of INTAF’s Sixth World Conference held in London in July 2005 - including a summary of talks presented by Gareth Thomas MP, Dr Andrew Sumner and Dr Meera Tiwari.
2. Investing in the Rural Poor - Mukat Singh "Investing in the Rural Poor", presented by Mukat Singh, founder/director of the Amarpurkashi Project in India. The paper discusses the many myths surrounding the rural poor, definitions of poverty, the reality of aid, trade and investment and sustainability.
3. INTAF Report - Jyoti Singh - the annual report of the INTAF committee A brief overview of INTAF, the International Task Force for the Rural Poor, an organisation dedicated to improving the lives of the rural poor.
4. Organizational Change in Pakistan - Rashed un Nabi un Nabi’s article examines the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme which operates in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and considers the recent changes in its role.
5. Economics of Production & Marketing Of Vegetables in Madhya Pradesh - Dr Manoj K Singh Vegetable growing is a common small-scale industry in rural India but producers, consumers and middlemen are frequently at loggerheads. This article looks at primary data from six districts and concludes that mainly lower and backward sections of society engage in vegetable farming on a subsistence basis with growth severely inhibited by lack of irrigation and credit facilities and poor business practices.
6. Indian Higher Education in the era of Globalization - A K Penthoi & Dr Sankarshan Dash Penthoi and Dash consider contemporary challenges in the field of higher education such as its internationalization, quantitative growth, quality assurance and examination reforms. They propose a strategic plan of action to improve both the quality and quantity of higher education in India.
7. The Dalit Question - K M Ziyauddin & S Acharya Sanghmitra On paper, dalits or scheduled castes/tribes of Indian society now enjoy equal rights in all spheres of life. In reality, a subtle and effective discrimination is widely practised against them, ensuring that their economic progress remains limited. This paper covers a range of issues, both historical and current, and concludes that dalits cannot enjoy the fruits of development unless and until Indian society becomes mature enough to accept them as equals.
8. The Jungle and the Village - Dr Julia Wardhaugh Wardhaugh discusses the historic divide between jungle and village in India and then focuses on one particular village in north India where she has carried out grass-roots research into different interpretations of crime and justice.
9. Project Profile - PROVA Short article on this NGO.
10. ETH Sustainability - Helena Malisova Short article on this organisation.
11. Lobbying in Brussels - Victoria Russell Short article describing the structure of Euoropean Union (EU) institutions, and how to lobby the EU

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April 2005

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • Editorial - business and sustainability
  • A Technical Framework in Knowledge Management - the non-farm economy of Indian villages and the use of Information and Communication Technology
  • Cultural Revival - the importance of appreciating one's own culture
  • Information Village Research Project - a successful experiment in delivering modern inofmration technology to the rural poor
  • Bihar Report - Indian delegates prepare for the INTAF conference
  • Corruption in India - Transparency International India looks at the current situation
  • Agrarian Change and Rural Poverty in Pakistan during 1990s - a detailed study of two important rural regions
  • The Truth about Globalisation - the reality behind the razzamatazz
  • Indian Agriculture towards a New Culture - major issues in the agricultural sector
  • Health Problems of the Aged - a comparative study between urban and rural people

October 2004

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • Working with the Rural Poor
  • Environmental Education
  • Perspectives on APK
  • Caring for the Education of the Rural Masses
  • Biogas
  • Privatisation of Teacher Education

April 2004

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • Investing in the Rural Poor
  • Education for all: Implications for Teacher Education
  • Improving the Management of Sustainable Development
  • The Defence against Drought
  • Organic Farming in India
  • Amarpurkashi Now and Then
  • Transparency International

October 2003

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • INTAF - Sixth World Conference
  • The Behaviour of Food Prices and Food Subsidies in Developing Countries
  • Education for the Rural Poor
  • Quality in Higher Education
  • An Overview of Chronic Poverty in India
  • Aid Effectiveness
  • GE Crops and the Rural Poor

April 2003

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • The Role of Sociology in Social Policy and Social Planning
  • Population and Development
  • Mlup Baitong, Cambodia
  • Rural Employment, Poverty and Human Development
  • A Cultural Irony
  • The Creamy Layer

October 2002

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • Education and Economic Development in India
  • An Experiment in Education
  • A Sociological Study of Urban Impact on a village of Eastern U.P.
  • A Grass-Roots Perspective on Aid
  • New Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching
  • The International Money Flow

April 2002

(These articles are not yet available online; paper copies can be purchased from the IJRS office)

  • Strangling the Voluntary Sector
  • Community, consensus and conflict in rural India
  • The Myth of Micro-Credit
  • Ecological Health
  • Project Profile - PANI



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